are generated by the freezing of a super cooled water drop, which is followed
by the ejection of electric charged ice fragments from a frosty surface
of the frozen drop. This observed microscopic phenomenon of
fragmentation of hydrometeors with their accompanying electrical charges
suggests a mechanism of rapid glaciations of ice multiplication process
and electrification in the atmosphere.
aerosols with high sulfates are ejected from evaporating seawater drops
generated by whitecaps at the ocean surface and followed by the formation
of hollow spherical sea salt particles. A secondary ejection of aerosols
is also detected during melting when the hollow particle is being moved
into a high moisture environment or being dissolved into another water drop.
A shell structure of magnesium chloride and/or potassium chloride on
the surface of aerosols are confirmed and condensation of water vapor
always began to form on aerosols in an environment of relative humidity
higher than 40%. These observations may open up many new paths to study
the multiplication and nucleation processes of condensationnuclei and the
generation of sulfate from ocean into the atmosphere.
trapped in cloud droplets may enhance acid rain production. Laboratory
experiment has demonstrated that flyash from electric power plants catalyzes
the reaction of sulfur dioxide in water droplets to form sulfates. When
flyash particulates are injected into water drops exposed to sulfur dioxide,
needle-like sulfates crystals appear. This reaction is also probably
implicated in marble deterioration and leaf damage.